Black Buck, common name for an antelope, mainly of India but with other small populations in Pakistan and Nepal. The black buck has ringed horns that have a moderate spiral twist of three to four turns and are up to 70 cm (28 in) long. The name black buck has also been applied to the sable antelope of Africa. The adult male stands about 80 cm (about 32 in) at the shoulder and weighs 32 to 43 kg (71 to 95 lb). The body's upper parts are black; the underparts and a ring around the eyes are white.
The light-brown female is usually hornless. Males are dark brown. Black bucks frequent the open plains in herds. When the rut (mating season) reaches a peak, one male establishes dominance.
Kala Hiran also called Indian Black Buck Antelope (Antelope cervicapra L.). It has four sub species, they are:
It used to be found all over India except the northeast. Now it is seen in Panjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat and central India. It does not live in dense forest but in open plains. It is one of the fastest animals on earth and can out run any animal over long distances. Open plains, which allows it to move fast, are therefore needed to protect it from predators.
The males darken at maturity and the most dominant male in the herd has a black coat. White highlights the eyes, ears, chin, under parts, and rump. Even fawns have these markings. They are brown but turn tan after about a month. Grown males have ringed horns spiraling in a V at least thirty-three centimeters above the head. Record trophies exceed fifty centimeters. The black buck eats mainly grasses. Pods, fruits, and flowers supplement this diet. Few black bucks live longer than twelve years, and their maximum life span is about sixteen years.
As other animal it is also a part of Nature and we need to conserve it for future generation. Black buck is one of 26 species of mammals, which have been declared endangered and protected by low in Nepal .
Cross breeding and development of high breed for domestic use.
Each species has value and meaning. In present context Biodiversity richness is greater than monetary value.
Tourist, researcher, animal lover may come to see this important animal and it will help the diffusion of local culture or production to the external national or international visitor.
Tourism development and decentralization of tourist flow.
System within a system
Cultural important in Hinduism and Buddhism: Black buck is a vehicle of Chandrama (soma or chandra) (moon). This is a symbol of purity prosperity and peace. Its skin use in the time of taking secret thread (bratabanda) as well as at the time of worshipping. In Buddhism, a pair of buck symbolizes Buddha when he turned to the Sarnath India. The horns and skin are also regarded as sacred object in Hinduism.
The main reason of population loss are:
Constant persecution by man has sadly reduced their number. Their large herds, which once freely roamed in the plains of North India where they thrive best, are no longer visible. During the eighteenth, nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century, black buck was the most hunted wild beast all over India. Till Independence, many princely states used to hunt this Indian Antelope and gazelle with cheetahs. Within Black Buck habitat people are leaving and domestic animals are free to graze this area as well. In one hand there is very limited land for Black Buck and there is high pressure of domestic animal as well as the people.